Bow Tie Analysis
Process Safe Limits
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The purpose of a Prestartup Safety Review
(PSSR) is to ensure that any changes that are made to a
facility or to an equipment item meet the original design
or operating intent before that facility is started up (or
re-started). In addition, PSSRs cover not only plant and
equipment but also "soft" items, such as operating
procedures and training.
The term Prestartup Safety Review is used by OSHA in its Process
Safety Management standard. BSEE (Bureau of Safety and Environmental
Enforcement) uses the term Prestartup Review. A more comprehensive
term is Operational Readiness. This term includes concepts such
as "Care, Custody and Control", i.e., ensuring
that the facility as built exactly matches what the designers intended.
Further information to do with PSSRs is provided in our
Prestartup Safety Review and in Chapter 8 - Operations,
Maintenance and Safety - of the book
Process Risk and Reliability Management.
The purpose of a prestartup safety review (PSSR)
is to ensure that initial start-ups, or start-ups following major
project work, proceed safely and smoothly. As with most process
safety activities, an OR review will generally be performed by a
small team made up of representatives from operations, maintenance,
engineering and safety.
The review has two major components:
The review represents the last chance to catch
any problems. Therefore it should be led by the personnel who will
be required to run the modified system. Generally, the following
issues will be covered by the review team:
- Ensure that all action items and recommendations from Hazards
Analyses and other reviews such as Management of Change have
been completed as required.
- Ensure that no changes that could affect safety or operability
have crept into the system during the construction phase.
- Equipment and instrumentation items that have been changed
are installed and commissioned in accordance with design specifications.
- Safety, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures
are in place and are adequate.
- All findings from hazards analyses, management of change
evaluations and other types of review have been closed out properly.
- All affected personnel have been trained in the new or modified
Organization of a PSSR
An effective way of organizing a PSSR is to work
through the elements of the facility's Process Safety Management
program. Different companies, professional bodies and regulators
have different element lists. The one provided by the Center for
Chemical Process Safety (CCPS 2007) is listed below.
- Process Safety Culture
- Workforce Involvement
- Stakeholder Outreach
- Knowledge Management
- Hazard Identification / Risk
- Operating Procedures
- Safe Work Practices
- Asset Integrity / Reliability
- Contractor Management
- Training / Performance
- Management of Change
- Operational Readiness
- Conduct of Operations
- Emergency Management
- Incident Investigation
- Measurement and Metrics
- Management Review