Book: Plant Design and Operations

Book: Plant Design and Operations
1st Edition



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Book: Plant Design and Operations Plant Design and Operations (PDO) provides practical guidance on the design, operation, and maintenance of process facilities. 

This book complements Process Risk and Reliability Management (PRRM). PRRM describes management principles and methods; PDO shows how those methods can be applied. For example, Chapter 11 of PRRM is entitled "Emergency Management". Chapter 6 of PDO contains information to do with the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used by emergency responders, and Chapter 9 is to do with Firefighting.



The book is based on years of hands-on experience gathered during the design and operation of a wide range of facilities in many different types of industry including chemicals, refining, offshore oil and gas, and pipelines. The book helps managers, engineers, operators, and maintenance specialists with advice and guidance that can be used right away in working situations.

For example:

  • Chapter 3 to do with Energy Control Procedures describes seven levels of positive isolation - ranging from a closed block valve all the way to double block and bleed with line break.
  • Chapter 10 - Safety in Design - describes topics such as area classification, fire protection, stairways and platforms, fixed ladders, emergency showers, lighting and alarms.
  •  A logical, practical guide to maintenance task organization is provided in Chapter 2 from conducting a Job Hazards Analysis to the issue of a work permit, and to the shutdown and isolation of equipment.
  • Common hazards, such as problems to do with fluid flow, high pressure, corrosion and power failure are discussed in Chapter 17.

Other areas covered by the book include security, equipment, and transportation.

Ordering Information

This book can be ordered directly from the publisher, Elsevier, or from Amazon or Barnes  & Noble. It will also be available in ebook form at ScienceDirect.

Book: Plant Design and Operations

Contents

The book has 17 chapters. The Table of Contents is shown below (also in pdf format)

Chapter 1 - Operations
Introduction
Professional Advice
Regulations, Standards and Guidance
   Regulations
   Industry Standards
      ISO
      ANSI
   Guidance Documents
Units of Measurement
Risk Reduction
   Risk Analysis 
   Quantification
Flammable and Combustible Materials
   Flammable Range
   Flammable Limits
   Flash Point
   Combustible Liquids
      Class II Liquids
      Class III Liquids
   Flammable Liquids
   Ignition Sources
Area Classification
Housekeeping
   General Neatness
   Proper Placement
   Grass and Brush
   Equipment and Piping
   Storage and Handling of Flammable Liquids
      Regulations and Standards
      Handling Requirements
Non-Process Operations
   Outside Storage
   Coal and Coke Storage
   Drum Storage
   Drainage
   Fire Protection and Prevention
   Cylinders
   Loading Racks
Simultaneous Operations (SIMOPs)
   Managing SIMOPs
   SIMOPS Matrix
   Conducting the SIMOPs
      Kick-Off Meeting
      Communication Meetings
   Close Out
Examples
   Example 1 - Facility Design
   Example 2 - Heat Exchanger

Chapter 2 - Maintenance and Inspection
Introduction
Types of Maintenance
   Repair Maintenance
   Condition-Based Maintenance
   Scheduled Maintenance
   Reliability-Centered Maintenance
Maintenance Task Organization
   Step 1 - Plan the Work
   Step 2 - Conduct a Job Hazards Analysis
   Step 3 - Issue a Work Permit
   Step 4 - Shutdown and Isolate Equipment
   Step 5 - First Break
   Step 6 - Perform the Work
   Step 7 - Close Out the Work
   Step 8 - Handover to Operations
      Readiness Review
      Mechanical Completion
Pressure Tests
   Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
   Test Medium
   Tightness Tests
   Strength Tests
Testing Procedures
      Hydrostatic (Liquid)
      Pneumatic (Gas)
      Installing Blinds
   Pressure Test Manual
On-Line Cleaning and Repair
Inspection
   Regulations and Standards
   Inspection Frequency
   Inspection Records
   Risk-Based Inspection
      Analyze Risk
      Determine Costs
      Allocate Resources

Chapter 3 - Energy Control Procedures
Introduction
Regulations and Standards
   OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119
   OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146
   API 2015
   API 2026
   API 2217A
   ANSI Z117.1
Removal of the Hazard
Equipment and Piping
   Venting and Draining Requirements
   Manways
   Electrical Equipment
   Mechanical Equipment
   Pipe Plugs
Minimizing Contact with Air
   Limiting Oxygen Concentration
   Blanketing
   Tank Filling and Emptying
   Heavy Sludge Deposits
   Spills and Overflows
   Flame Propagation through Drains
   Catching Samples
   Air-Blowing of Hydrocarbon Lines
Positive Isolation
   Level 1 - Closed Valve
      Control Valves
      Blow-Down Valves
      Shut-Down Valves
   Level 2 - Closed Valve with Open Bleeder
   Level 3 - Double Block and Bleed
   Level 4 - Block and Bleed with Line Break
   Level 5 - Block, Bleed and Spectacle Blind
   Level 6 - Double Block and Bleed with Blind
   Level 7 - Double Block and Bleed with Line Break
Lockout / Tagout
   Car Seals
   Group Lockout
   Lockboxes
   Padlocks
   Tags
   Removing Locks and Tags
Electrical Isolation
Administrative Controls
Work Permits
   General Work Permits
      Issuance of Permits
      Changes in Conditions
      Multiple Work Permits
   Hot Work Permits
Confined Space Entry
   Types of Space
      Non-Hazardous Space
      Hazardous Space
   The Entry Permit
   Personnel
      Entrant
      Supervisor
      Manway Attendant
      Gas Tester
      Rescue Team
   Preparation
      Job Hazards Analysis
      Isolate the Equipment
      Drain Liquids, Purge and Ventilate
   Test
Tie-Ins
Hot Tapping
   Plugged Lines
   Prevention of Pluggage
   Unplugging a Line
   Mechanical
   Differential Pressure
      Fluid Selection
      Steam
      Compressed Gas

Chapter 4 - Occupational Safety
Introduction
Measuring Performance
Safety Manual
Behavior Based Safety
   Observed Hazard Card
   Five by Five Policy
Lone Worker Policy
Incident Reporting
   Vehicle Incidents
   Near Misses
Portable Gas Detectors
Machinery Safety
Fall Protection
   Definitions
   Fall Protection System
   Fall Arrest System Equipment
Dropped Objects
Compressed Gas Cylinders
Overhead Power Lines
Cranes and Rigging
   Lifting Precautions
   Crane Operation

Chapter 5 - Chemicals
Introduction
Fluid Categories
Material Safety Data Sheets
Global Harmonization System
The Safety Diamond
Exposure Limits
   Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs)
   Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
   Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL)
   Threshold Limit Values (TLV)
   Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
Benzene
Hydrogen Fluoride
   Unloading
   KOH Beds
   Dedicated Flare
Sulfur Dioxide
Hydrogen Sulfide
   Toxicity
   Flammability
   Location of Monitors
   Corrosion
Chlorine
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrogen
Lead

Chapter 6 - Personal Protective Equipment
Introduction
Employer Responsibility
Regulations and Standards
Clothing
   Flame Resistant Clothing
   Impervious Clothing
   Laboratory Clothing
   Emergency PPE
      Firefighter Protective Clothing
      Proximity Suits
Respiratory Protection
   Fixed Breathing Air Systems
   Respirators
      Air-Purifying Respirators
      Supplied Air Respirators
      Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBAs)
      Chemical Canister Rebreathers
      Disposable Respirators
      Use of Respirators
Head Protection
   Additional Equipment / Markers
   Color Schemes
   Maintenance and Storage
Hand Protection
Foot Protection
Eye Protection
   Safety Glasses
   Chemical Goggles

Chapter 7 - Health and Industrial Hygiene
Introduction
Employee Access to Records
Asbestos
Noise
   Regulations and Standards
      MSHA 30 CFR 62
      OSHA 1926.101 - Hearing Protection
      OSHA 1910.95 - Occupational Noise Exposure
      NIOSH: Noise and Hearing Loss Protection
      EEMUA
   Definitions
      Decibel
      Time-Weighted Average (TWA)
      Hertz
      Noise Dose
      Threshold Limit Value (TLV)
   Noise Limits
      Continuous Noise
      Intermittent or Fluctuating Noise
   Noise Control
      Remove the Source
      Modify the Source
      Relocation / Barriers
      Enclose Equipment
      Hearing Protection
      Administrative Controls
   Vibration Control
   Industry Issues
NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)
   Regulations and Standards
   TENORM
   Exposure
   Treatment
   Water / Dry Blasting
   Safe Limits
   Protective Measures
Lifting
Heat Stress
   Heat Index
   Types of Heat Stress
   Heat Stress Factors
   Heat Stress Prevention
Cold Stress
   Types of Cold Stress
   Equivalent Chill Temperature
   Controlling Cold Stress
Radiant Heat
Food and Galley Hygiene
   Methods of Preservation and Treatment
   Treating Contamination
   Storage and Cooking Temperatures
   Facilities and Equipment
Alcohol and Drug Policy
   Coverage
   Affected Participants
   Applicants for Employment
   Testing
   Contractors

Chapter 8 - Human Factors and Ergonomics
Introduction
Process Safety Management
Human Error
   Errors of Intent
   Errors of Action
      Slips
      Mistakes
      Fixation
      Error in an Emergency
   THERP
Ergonomics
   Muculoskeletal Disorders
      Fix the Person
      Fit the Person to the Task
      Change the Person
      Change Performance
      Change the Work or Workplace
   Work Stations
Human Factors on Projects
   Phase I - Concept Selection
   Phase II - Preliminary Engineering
   Phase III - Detailed Engineering
Control Rooms
Valve Criticality Analysis
   Category 1
   Category 2
   Category 3
Signs
   Regulations and Standards
   Types of Sign
      Prohibition
      Mandatory Action
      Warning
      Safe Condition
      Fire Safety
   Labeling
   Color Coding
      Exposed Piping
      Hoses

Chapter 9 - Firefighting
Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Principles of Fire Fighting
   Remove the Fuel Source
   Consequence and Likelihood
   Safeguards
   Single Fire Concept
   Fire Zones
Fire Water
   Water Capacity and Rates
   Deluge Systems
   Sources of Fire Water
   Testing
   Fire Water Pumps and Drivers
      Jockey Pumps
      Main Fire Pumps
   Fixed Water Spray Systems
   Automatic Sprinkler Systems
   Monitors / Hose Carts
   Fire Water Distribution System
      Materials of Construction
      Layout
      Deluge Valves
      Hydrants
   Other Firefighting Media
      Halon
      Steam
      Foam Systems
      Carbon Dioxide
      Earth-Moving Equipment
   Underground Firewater Systems
Portable Fire Extinguishers
   Location
   Types
      Water Extinguishers
      Carbon Dioxide Extinguishers
      Dry Chemical Extinguishers
Training

Chapter 10 - Safety in Design
Introduction
Units of Measurement
Fire Protection
   Fireproofing
   Passive Fire Protection
   Fireproofing Materials
   Fireproofing Insulation
Stairways, Ramps and Platforms
   Regulations and Standards
   Terminology
   Spiral / Winding Stairs
   Landings
   Design Load
   Stair Rails
   Stair Treads
   Ramps
Fixed Ladders
   Guidance
   Safety Cages and Gates
   Rungs and Stringers
   Intermediate Platforms
   Work Platforms and Walkways
      Handrails and Toeboards
      Tank Gauging Platforms
      Connected Tanks
Emergency Showers and Eyewashes
   Regulations and Standards
   Risk Management
   Release Points and Location
   Safety Shower Design
      Flow Rates and Pattern
      Visibility and Accessibility
      Alarms
      Electrical Area
      Freeze Protection
      Heat Protection
      Enclosures
   Using the Shower
   Inspection
   Eye-Wash Units

Chapter 11 - Siting and Layout
Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Siting
Layout
Spacing
   Process Equipment
   Property Lines
Blocks and Roads
   Routine Access and Egress
   Firefighting Access
   Hazardous Chemical Areas
   Secondary Containment
   Drainage
Equipment
   Vessels
   Pumps
   Hydrocarbon Storage Tanks
   Compressors / Compressor Drivers
   Heat Exchangers
   Air Fin Coolers
   Boilers and Steam Generators
   Cooling Towers
   Fired Equipment
   Equipment Stacking
   Air Intakes
Piping and Valves
Utilities
   Instruments and Cables
   Electrical Substations
   Bare-Wire Electric Power Lines
Buildings
   Occupied Buildings
   Electrical Rooms/Substations
   Pressurized Enclosures
   Process Buildings
   Temporary Buildings
   Control Buildings
   Control Laboratories / Analyzer Buildings
   Warehouses
   Inside Storage
   Operator Shelters
   Electrical Equipment Buildings
   Non-Process Buildings
Loading and Unloading
Emergency Equipment
   Process Isolation Valves
   Emergency Stations
   Hydrants and Monitors
Fire and Gas Detection
   Regulations and Standards
   Layout of Detectors
   Responses
   Fire Detection
      Flammable Gas Detection
      Fire / Flame Detection
      Heat Detection
      Fusible Links
      Smoke Detection
      Ultrasonic Detectors
      Closed-Circuit Television
   Toxic Gas Detection
Manual Alarm Call Points
Offshore Facilities
   Safe Areas
   Operations
   Emergency Evacuation and Rescue
   Temporary Refuge
   Wellbay Area
   Drilling Rigs
   Pipeline Equipment
   Fire Protection / Fire and Gas Detection
   Helidecks
   Transfer Areas
   Piping
   Rotating Equipment

Chapter 12 - Equipment
Introduction
Pressure Vessels
   Regulations and Standards
   Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT)
   Spare Parts
   Vessels under Vacuum
   Reflux Vessels
   Small Pipe Connections
Storage Tanks
   Fixed Roof Tanks
   Floating Roof Tanks
Pumps
   Pump Casing
   Seals and Packing
   Minimum Flow Bypass
   Pump Isolation
   Safety Issues
Compressors
   Liquid Knockout on the Compressor Suction
   Relief Valves
   Compressor Isolation
   Shutdown and Alarm Systems
Heat Exchangers
   Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
   Air-Cooled Exchangers
   Cooling Towers
Fired Heaters
   Regulations and Standards
   Startup of Fired Heaters
   Air Preheaters
   Fired Heater Burnout
Boilers
Internal Combustion Engines
   Starter Systems
   Intake, Exhaust and Fuel Systems
Electrical Equipment
   Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters

Chapter 13 - Piping and Valves
Introduction
Piping
   Materials
   Insulation
   Gaskets
   Threaded Piping
   Thermal Expansion
   Identification and Labeling of Pipes
   Testing and Inspection
Blinds
   Line Blinds
   Spectacle Blinds
Valves
   Block Valves
   Valve Seat Material
   Self-Closing Valves
   Check Valves
   Emergency Isolation Valves
   Excess Flow Valves
   Trapped Liquids
   Plugs
Pressure Relief Devices
   Design Parameters
   Regulations and Standards
   Pressure Safety Relief Valves
   Pilot-Operated Pressure Relief Valves
   Thermal Relief Valves
   Discharge Piping
   Testing and Inspection
   Rupture Disks
   Hatches / Doors
Flame Arrestors
   Thermal Flame Arrestors
   Detonation Arrestors
   Water Seal-Type Flame Arrestors
   Velocity-Type Flame Arrestors
Flares
   Engineering Standards
   Types of Flare
   Smokeless Operation
   Location of Flares

Chapter 14 - Safety Instrumentation
Introduction
Regulations and Standards
   IEC 61511
   IEC 61508
Alarms
   Alarm Design
   Alarm Management
Safety Instrumented Systems
   Safety Integrity Level
      Design
      Quantitative Analysis
      Testing and Inspection
   Emergency Shutdown
HIPPS

Chapter 15 - Transportation
Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Road Vehicles
   Vacuum Trucks
   All-Terrain Vehicles
Loading / Unloading
   General Procedures
   Control Measures
   Bonding
   Switch Loading
   Tank/Rail Cars
   Additives
Marine Transport
   Personnel Transfer Baskets
   Cargo Baskets
   Rigid Frame Baskets
Helicopters
   Guidance
      Personnel Movement
      Air Turbulence
      Rescue
   Regulations and Standards

Chapter 16 - Security
Introduction
Regulations and Standards
Types of Attack
   Members of the Public
      Vandalism
      Theft
      Activists
   Sabotage
   Terrorism
      Visible Security
      Population Density
      High Profile
Security Vulnerability Analyses
   Rings of Protection
   Cybersecurity
Managing Security
   Culture
   Inherent Safety
   Access Security
   Personnel Screening
   Equipment Modifications
Response to a Threatening Call

Chapter 17 - Common Hazards
Introduction
Process Hazards
   High Flow
   Low / No Flow
   Reverse Flow
   Misdirected Flow
   High Pressure
   High Temperature
      Blocked-In Pump
      Polymerization
      External Fire
   Low Pressure
   Low Temperature
   High Level
   Wrong Composition
   Corrosion
   Chemical Embrittlement
   Strong Oxidizers
   Static Electricity
Hazards of Utilities
   Common Cause Failure
   Process Contamination
   Electrical Power Failure
   Nitrogen
   Reverse Flow to a Utility Header
   Survivability of Utilities
Hazards of Water
   Water in Hydrocarbon Tanks
   Water in Very Hot Liquid
   Water and Firefighting
Hazards of Steam
   Steaming Vessels during Turnaround
   Reboiler Leak
   Wet Steam
Hazards of Ice
   Line Freezing
   Hydrates
Hazards of Compressed Gas
   Gas Cylinders
   Pigging Incident
Hazards of Air
   Flammable Mixture
   Blowing a Line Clear
   Hazards of External Events
      Flooding
      Lightning
      Earthquakes
Hazards of Equipment and Instruments
   Furnace Firing
   Fired Heater Burnout
   Multiple Uses of Equipment
   Distributed Control Systems
Hazards of Piping, Valves and Hoses
   Piping
      Pipe Class Transition
      Hydraulic Hammer
      Pig Launchers and Receivers
      Pressure in Relief Headers
      Overload of Overhead Vacuum Lines
      Underground Piping
      Vents and Bleeders
   Hoses
      Hoses and Truck Pull-Away
      Hose Run Over
      Hose Failure
      Backflow Preventor
      Temporary Connection
Valves
   Block Valves below Relief Valves
   Fail-Safe Control Valves
   Shared Relief Valve
   SDV Bypass

Citations

About the Author

Ebook: Inherent Safety

Ian Sutton is a chemical engineer with over 40 years experience in the process industries. He has worked on the design and operation of offshore platforms, refineries, chemical plants, pipelines and minerals processing facilities.

 



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